Corruption poses a serious development challenge. Corruption undermines political, social and economic stability. It threatens security and damages trust and public confidence in systems which affect people’s daily lives. Although corruption frequently occurs at local or national level, its consequences are global; its hidden costs immense. Corruption arises in both political and bureaucratic offices and can be petty or grand, organized or unorganized. Have a look.
10. Equatorial Guinea
The Republic of Equatorial Guinea is located in west central Africa. The country has exasperated a variety of rights organisations who have described the two post-independence leaders as among the worst abusers of human rights in Africa. The value of Equatorial Guinea's exports is considerably higher than the cost of its imports. Equatorial Guinea continues to depend heavily on foreign investment.
Burundi is a landlocked country in the Great Lakes region of Eastern Africa bordered by Rwanda, Tanzania and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Burundi's economy is based predominantly on agriculture. griculture supports more than 90% of the labor force, the majority of whom are subsistence farmers. Although Burundi is potentially self-sufficient in food production, the civil war, overpopulation, and soil erosion have contributed to the contraction of the subsistence economy by 30% in recent years.
Chad is a landlocked country in central Africa. It is bordered by Libya, Sudan, the Central African Republic, Cameroon, Nigeria and Niger. Landlocked Chad's economic development suffers from it's geographic remoteness drought lack of infrastructure and political turmoil. About 85% of the population depends on agriculture including the herding of livestock. Currently Chad has a GDP right under $16 billion GDP and a per capita income of only about $1,600.
Sudan is the largest, yet one of the least visited, countries in Africa. Sudan is an overwhelmingly agricultural country. Much of the farming is of a subsistence kind; agriculture occupies some 80% of the workforce but contributes only 35% of the GDP. Industry is largely confined to agricultural processing and light manufacturing. Sudanese officials including president Omer Hassan Al-Bashir routinely dismiss any talk of widespread corruption in the country despite a public perception to the contrary.
The nation's numerous mineral resources include rich deposits of oil and natural gas under the Caspian Sea and along its coast. Turkmenistan’s economy still depends heavily on energy, and the government controls most of the economy, making the transition to greater economic freedom marginal and unstable. The narrow economic base, together with government inefficiency and interference, has prevented the development of a robust private sector and slowed job growth.
Uzbekistan is rich in mineral resources. State intervention remains considerable in many areas of the economy and continues to hold back long-run economic development. The courts are subject to political interference, and corruption is pervasive throughout the civil service. Economic reform is an unfinished process in Uzbekistan. The country scores poorly in most areas of economic freedom.
Iraq has been highly dependent on foreign economic aid in recent years, from both Western and Arab countries. The country also has a severe labor shortage. The absence of the rule of law is impeding the development of a vibrant private sector and hurts overall economic growth, especially by hindering the creation of a stable investment and entrepreneurial climate. Economic progress rests on a fragile foundation, undermined continuously by weak physical security and persistent corruption.
Corruption in Afghanistan is perceived as rampant. As a result of war, exports have dwindled to a minimum, except for the illegal trade in opium and hashish. The country has also become an important producer of heroin, which is derived from opium. Afghanistan is heavily dependent on international assistance. The main trading partners are Pakistan, the United States, and India. The economy lacks the overall capacity to enhance productivity as well as to improve the standard of living.
Myanmar's economic freedom has deteriorated even more in recent years. Investment freedom, financial freedom, property rights, and freedom from corruption are extraordinarily weak. Monetary stability remains fragile, and inflation is very high, largely reflecting excessive money creation to fund fiscal deficits. Almost three quarters of Myanmar's population either grows or processes crops, with roughly only ten percent of of population working in the industrial sector.
Factors that gave Somalia the worst ranking were reports of the diversion of half of the international food aid meant to its 2.6 million starving populace and its military warlords who control most of Somalia’s territory. Somalia has suffered two consecutive years of drought and bad rains, making the country entirely dependent on foreign food aid. Corruption has marred every aspect of Somali society. Business warlords have adjusted to the climate of lawlessness - avoiding taxes, selling expired food and drugs, sustaining anti-state forces and commercialising so as to profit from areas that were traditionally in the public sector. In many parts of the country inter-governmental and non-governmental organisations have become de facto governments without any accountability. Enough said.